Decarbonisation of the Public Transport Sector in Tirana
Annual Review of Territorial Governance in the Western Balkans, I, 2019, 107-119
Rodion Gjoka, Gerti Delli
The transport sector is one of the main contributors of air pollution, accounting for 25% of gas emissions in the European Union (EU). In Tirana, Albania, the transport sector plays a big role in pollution concentrations, affecting public health. Compared to other countries, the heavy industry and energy sectors in Albania are barely significant in terms of their environmental footprint, thus making the transport sector one of the main contributors to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.
To achieve significant cuts in emissions, and in line with the Paris Agreement’s (PA) long-term goal, the decarbonisation of the transport sector is seen as a key priority in the international policy arena (New Climate Institute, Ecofys, Climate Analytics, 2016). All transport modes should contribute to the decarbonisation of the mobility system (European Commission, 2018).
Transport accounts for 33% of energy consumption and 64.5% of oil consumption in the EU. In Albania, according to the National Agency of Natural Resources (NANR), the transport sector (primarily road transport) consumes 47% of the total domestic production of crude oil. Such a comparison is made to recognise the fact that Albania exports most of the crude oil extracted domestically and does not directly supply internal markets (especially the transport sector) due to poor refinery technologies. Tirana plays an important role in this respect, as there are more than 255,000 private vehicles (including private cars and light and heavy-duty vehicles), and at least 305 public transport buses.
This article addresses the decarbonisation of public transport sector as one of the ways to influence mobility policies at a local level. Taking into consideration evidence-based information on Tirana’s air pollution and estimated emissions from the sector, the article also offers policy orientations for the Municipality of Tirana, aimed at promoting a climate neutral path for the public transport sector.
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